Clinical Evidence
Teeth with orthodontic brackets AI

Link to paper

Deep convolutional neural network-based automated segmentation and classification of teeth with orthodontic brackets on cone-beam computed-tomographic images: a validation study

Khalid Ayidh Alqahtani, Reinhilde Jacobs, Andreas Smolders, Adriaan Van Gerven, Holger Willems, Sohaib Shujaat, Eman Shaheen



Tooth segmentation and classification from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a prerequisite for diagnosis and treatment planning in the majority of digital dental workflows. However, an accurate and efficient segmentation of teeth in the presence of metal artefacts still remains a challenge. Therefore, the following study aimed to validate an automated deep convolutional neural network (CNN)-based tool for the segmentation and classification of teeth with orthodontic brackets on CBCT images.


A total of 215 CBCT scans (1780 teeth) were retrospectively collected, consisting of pre- and post-operative images of the patients who underwent combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment. All the scans were acquired with NewTom CBCT device. A complete dentition with orthodontic brackets and high-quality images were included. The dataset were randomly divided into three subsets with random allocation of all 32 tooth classes: training set (140 CBCT scans-400 teeth), validation set (35 CBCT scans-100 teeth), and test set (pre-operative: 25, post-operative: 15 = 40 CBCT scans-1280 teeth). A multiclass CNN-based tool was developed and its performance was assessed for automated segmentation and classification of teeth with brackets by comparison with a ground truth.


The CNN model took 13.7 ± 1.2 s for the segmentation and classification of all the teeth on a single CBCT image. Overall, the segmentation performance was excellent with a high intersection over union (IoU) of 0.99. Anterior teeth showed a significantly lower IoU (P < 0.05) compared to premolar and molar teeth. The dice similarity coefficient score of anterior (0.99 ± 0.02) and premolar teeth (0.99 ± 0.10) in the pre-operative group was comparable to the post-operative group. The classification of teeth to the correct 32 classes had a high recall rate (99.9%) and precision (99%).


The proposed CNN model outperformed other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of accuracy and efficiency. It could act as a viable alternative for automatic segmentation and classification of teeth with brackets.

Clinical Significance

The proposed method could simplify the existing digital workflows of orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, restorative dentistry, and dental implantology by offering an accurate and efficient automated segmentation approach to clinicians, hence further enhancing the treatment predictability and outcomes.

Would you like to learn more?

Feel free to schedule a meeting with us.